The Elangomat Handbook

Compiled and Revised by John Chorba

1995-1996 Elangomat Chairman

Sanhican Lodge #2

One of the greatest services a lodge can have is that of an Elangomat. In the language of the Lenni Lenape, "Elangomat" means "friend." Webster's dictionary defines "friend" as "1. a person whom one knows well and is fond of; close acquaintance. 2. a person on the same side in a struggle; ally. 3. a supporter or sympathizer." Everything involved in the Ordeal will be new to the candidates, so they definitely need someone who will have the above qualities. An Elangomat must have these qualities.

Those who have been chosen as an Elangomat must be ready for the challenge. They must thrive in the ideals and principles of the Order of the Arrow. Brotherhood, Cheerfulness, and Service are the only reasons why the Elangomat does his job. Many Arrowmen would never go through the Ordeal for a second time. An Elangomat is different from others, however, because he sees the visions of men like Lord Baden-Powell and Dr. E. Urner Goodman. An Elangomat strives to show these visions to those who undertake the Ordeal.

Table of Contents

How do I use this handbook?
What is the Extended Elangomat program?
The Ten Induction Principles
Tips on Elangomatting
What do I do as an Elangomat?
What is an Honor Elangomat?
The Elangomat Discussion
How should I conduct my discussions?
Questioning Techniques
What do I cover during discussions?



How do I use this Handbook?

This handbook is specifically designed for the benefit of Elangomats. This book is based on the Extended Elangomat program, and can be used in the implementation of this program.

If you are an Elangomat, or are about to become one, this handbook is just right for you. Regardless of whether you are an experienced Elangomat or a novice, you can, and will, benefit from this book. When used in conjunction with the Order of the Arrow Handbook, you will be prepared for your upcoming Ordeal.

This book is basically a reference book for all Elangomats. You should become familiar with it; it is your friend. You can use it to quickly look up information that you need, but do not read from this book word for word. You can develop your own style as an Elangomat. Your clan needs to know some of the information in here, but do not act as a mirror and reflect the material from the book to your clan. However, when you need to give particular information to your clan, do not stray off the subject. You can get the ideas across while making it fun.



What is the Extended Elangomat program?

The Extended Elangomat program is very similar to the regular Elangomat program. (For all Elangomats reading this, you did not get pulled into something you know nothing about.) In fact, the Extended Elangomat is the exact same as the normal Elangomat program except for one detail.

Unlike the normal Elangomat program, the Extended Elangomat does not end his job at his clan's completion of the Ordeal. Rather, the Elangomat continues to keep in touch with his clan and helps them obtain their Brotherhood membership in the lodge. This increases active participation in the lodge, as the Elangomat encourages his clan to participate in lodge events.



The Ten Induction Principles

Principle One - Purpose: The Purpose of the Induction is to encourage and inspire each candidate to develop firm individual dedication to the ideals of Brotherhood, Cheerfulness, and Service.

Principle Two - Eligibility: The right to earn Ordeal and Brotherhood membership is given only by the scouts of a candidate's home unit during an authorized Order of the Arrow unit election. Only the candidate himself can overrule their decision.

Principle Three - Candidate's Compliance: The candidate has the continuous choice of meeting the tests of the Ordeal to the best of his ability or of withdrawing.

Principle Four - Members' Compliance: All members participating in the induction must respect and comply with the tests of the Ordeal, to the extent allowed by their responsibilities.

Principle Five - Discretion: In cases where strict application of the tests and requirements of the Induction is not possible, the lodge may choose an alternative that will best preserve the spirit of the Induction and the quality of the candidates' experience.

Principle Six - Importance of the Individual: All actions and procedures must recognize the worth, dignity, and separate identity of the individual and his present or potential ability to govern himself.

Principle Seven - Generosity: The attitude of members toward the candidate must be one of acceptance, respect, understanding, friendly encouragement, sincerity, support, and trust.

Principle Eight - Focus: Everything in the lodge-created environment must direct the candidate to the central meaning of the induction, and not distract him from it.

Principle Nine - Symbolic Progression: No symbol or symbolic procedure should be mentioned or used unless it is called for in the authorized ceremonies.

Principle Ten - Active Membership: Lodge policy must recognize that one who understands the Obligation of the Order and is striving to fulfill it is an active member, his dedication in itself accomplishes the major service of the lodge.



Tips on Elangomatting

There are several things to remember while doing your job as an Elangomat. Keep these in mind when you read through this handbook and while you are at the Ordeal

You are going through the Ordeal

Never mind that you have a sash on while the rest of your clan does not. You have a vow of silence to keep. You have a day of arduous labor ahead. You will eat scant food to prove your powers of self-denial.

Remember to lead by example

Leadership by example is probably the best kind of leadership. It even works better for Elangomats because of the vow of silence. You may talk in extremely necessary cases, but remember, your clan will follow your example.

Everything is new for the candidates

Each candidate will undoubtedly have some degree of fear or anxiety about the Ordeal. It is virtually certain that they have heard rumors as to what may happen to them. As an Elangomat, it is your responsibility to comfort the candidates and put them at ease.

Proper Prior Planning Prevents Pitifully Poor Performance

Those Elangomats that have prepared themselves will have a much more fun and much easier time than those that do not.

Be aware of the Ten Induction Principles during the Ordeal

It is crucial that the Elangomat be conscious of these principles throughout the entire Ordeal. Symbolic progression, especially, must be observed.



What do I do as an Elangomat?

As an Elangomat, you have some specific responsibilities. The following items are your jobs.

1. Training

Participate in the Elangomat training session prior to the Ordeal. Get to know this handbook, and know the appropriate sections of the Order of the Arrow Handbook. Remember, your job as an Elangomat is much easier if you are prepared.

2. Introduce Yourself

Be sure to call each clan member well before the weekend. Introduce yourself and answer any questions that they might have. Make sure that each can attend the Ordeal and each has a ride. You are their friend, and it is pertinent they need to think of you as one by the end of the conversation. (See "What do I cover during discussions?" for some guidelines.) The only equipment that they should need would be the following: a sleeping bag, ground cloth, work clothes, full uniform, sleeping clothes, clothes for Sunday, and anything else included in the information sheet. They DO NOT NEED and SHOULD NOT BRING tents, any kind of radios and televisions, and food.

3. Be at Registration

Make sure that you arrive at the weekend either before or at the same time as the candidates. It is imperative that you are punctual. Greet each candidate personally while in full uniform with your sash on. (Later there should be a ceremony in which your sash is turned inside out, but have the arrow showing for now.) When the entire clan has arrived, take

them to deposit the equipment that they will not need for the evening. The Elangomat Sakima will tell you where the equipment storage place is. At this point, hold "Discussion #1." (See "What do I cover during discussions?")

After you finish the discussion, tell the Elangomat Sakima that you are finished, and he will inform you of where to wait for the Elangomat Induction Ceremony. After this, you will be told where to gather your clan for the pre-Ordeal ceremony.

4. The Pre-Ordeal

Assemble your clan as told for the pre-Ordeal ceremony. At a given time, the torch bearer will come to you and you will exchange in this conversation:

Torch Bearer:

"I seek those who are prepare to continue the journey of the Ordeal."

Each Elangomat (in turn):

"The members of the ------- clan, here assembled, are prepared to continue the journey."

Each Elangomat will follow the Torch Bearer in turn with his own equipment. Make sure your clan follows you. You will participate in all aspects of the ceremonies with your clan.

5. The Night Alone

"A Night Alone Under the Stars to Prove Your Self-Reliance."

Following the pre-Ordeal, Kitchkinet will lead the clans to where they will sleep. When Kitchkinet asks you for the name of your clan, stop and tell him. He will then say:

"The Elangomat of the ------ clan chooses to continue the Ordeal at this location."

Remain in place until the other clans are out of sight. When they are gone, take each candidate silently to his sleeping place and say:

"Sleep here in peace, friend. If you need me I'll be near."

Point out where you will be sleeping. Space each candidate evenly. The Elangomat must know where each clan member is at all times. Then go to your own resting place at the front of the clan. Drape your sash inside out conspicuously over a tree branch regardless of the weather. It would be a good idea to remain awake for about an hour to be sure that all your clan members are settled.

6. The Morning of the Ordeal

"Twenty-Four Hours of Scant Food to Prove Your Powers of Self- Denial."

Elangomats will be awakened, at a designated time, by Kitchkinet. He should bring breakfast for the clan and leave it with you. Awaken each clan member, and tell them, silently, to quickly collect their equipment, change into work clothes, and come to your sleeping site. After you have finished this, return to your site and collect your equipment and change.

When the entire clan has gathered at your site, have breakfast. Then conduct "Discussion #2." (See "What do I cover during discussions.) After breakfast and the discussion, clean the site. Remember to keep your sash on throughout the day. Now you may begin the start of your work.

"A Like Period of Silence to Turn Your Thoughts Inward."

Remember, you share the vow of silence with the candidates. Only talk when it is absolutely necessary.

7. Work Projects

"A Day of Arduous Toil to Prove Your Willingness to Serve Others."

You will be assigned a work project, and it is likely that there will be Brothers assigned to your task also. Most times, Brothers and candidates will not work together, but it may be necessary. In this case, the Brothers must respect the fourth Principle of the Induction. This means no talking, and no bothering the candidates. They should respect this, and if they do not, either talk to them about it, or talk to a lodge officer, the Elangomat Sakima, or the Elangomat committee advisor.

All during the day, you will work alongside the candidates in your clan. Lead by example as often as you can, rather than giving orders. You can give necessary directions, but avoid chatting with either candidates or Brothers. You are the example that the candidates follow. If necessary, you may counsel a candidate or Brother privately by removing yourself and that individual from the group and temporarily overriding the vow of silence.

Explain to the candidates the work that needs to be done. Explain how to do it by example, if possible, and explain its value. Do not tell them how to do it, nor should you say, "We will do it." Just explain that it is a job that needs to be done, and start working. The concept of allowing the candidates the opportunity to choose to serve is realistic and perhaps essential in regard to the structure of our Order. Give the candidates every opportunity to offer their assistance.


A sincere smile that says "Thank you" will be the reward for any assistance. This will teach candidates more about offering unselfish service than many hours of lectures, and this smile may also be more than they will receive in similar situations at home or in their adult life.

During the work projects, you should allow your clan to rest when necessary in relation to the work being performed, their ages and physical conditions, and the weather. Allow candidates to drink as much water as they choose, and let them take necessary latrine breaks.

Kitchkinet and the kitchen crew will probably deliver lunch. If any Brothers are working with the clan, they will return to the dining hall for lunch. Conduct "Discussion #3" during lunch. (See "What do I cover during discussions?")

8. The Evening of the Ordeal

You will be told when to return to the dining hall. When that time comes, make sure you have had the clan finish up what they were doing and clean up. When you return to the dining hall, have your clan gather their equipment that they had stored before the pre-Ordeal and bring it to the clan's campsite. (The Elangomat Sakima will tell you which site to go to.) Once there, allow the clan to clean up and dress in full uniform. You should now return to the dining hall and hold "Discussion #4." (See "What do I cover during discussions?") During some Ordeals, a snack may be provided for the candidates at this time. After you have finished your discussion, inform the Elangomat Sakima that you are ready. Please do not take all day. It is very important that things are completed as soon as possible.

9. The Ordeal Ceremony

When everything is ready, you will receive enough sashes for your clan members. You will be told where to go and wait. At the designated time the Torch-Bearer will lead you to the ceremonial grounds to await Kitchkinet. You will walk hand on shoulder, you will be bound, and you will participate in every aspect of the ceremony. You are expected to show, by example, the solemnity of the ceremony.

The sashes should be draped over your right shoulder before the ceremony. Near the end, the candidates will receive their sashes. At this time, one of the Indians will take the sashes. He will then move in front of each candidate and drape a sash over their shoulder. You should follow him behind the candidates and button the sash on each person.

10. Dinner and the Cracker Barrel

This is the new Brothers' first opportunity to "mingle" with the other Brothers. Encourage them to sit with you, your friends, any Brothers they know, and other new Brothers. Remember, "Elangomat" means "friend." After dinner, but before the evening activities and cracker barrel, hold "Discussion #5."

During the cracker barrel, make sure your clan members are having a good time and get to meet both new and experience Brothers.

11. The Development Period

You have not finished your duties as your Brothers' friend. This is the difference in the Extended Elangomat program. During the next year, make sure that you keep in touch with all of your clan members. Inform them of lodge and chapter events if they are not aware of them. See if they can get to these events. Encourage them to become active within their lodge and chapter. Make sure they know who the lodge and chapter officers are and their phone numbers. Answer any of their questions, or find the answer to them. You are their friend and they are yours.

As soon as possible after the Ordeal, write a report (it could be as short as a paragraph) on the Ordeal and Elangomat programs. Include what you liked and did not like. Also include what could be improved and how. Remember, it is your ideas that build next year's Elangomat program. Send this report to the Elangomat Chairman.

The development period is basically to prepare the Ordeal members for Brotherhood membership. In the months after the Ordeal, you should, therefore, help your clan members memorize what they need to know according to the requirements. It is very important that you help your clan members understand the Order of the Arrow and Brotherhood membership. In the "What do I cover during discussions?" section, there is a list of information that you should get across. You should also want to help your clan members write their Brotherhood letter, but do not write it for them. You may want to meet as a clan once or twice during this period to help them understand what they are doing for their Brotherhood membership. You can even make this a fun weekend. Of course, none of that is required, just as long as the information gets across well.

Write another report about one year later on post-Ordeal activities and how to best keep Brothers active. Send it to the current Elangomat Chairman.



What is an Honor Elangomat?

An Honor Elangomat is an Elangomat that has performed exceptionally well in his duties as an Elangomat. These Elangomats will receive some type of recognition showing their achievement. The specific requirements include that at least 50% of his clan obtains their Brotherhood membership within one year of their induction. It is also necessary to be trained. The post-Ordeal report must be completed and sent to the current Elangomat Chairman for an Elangomat to receive this honor. The last requirement is for the attendance at lodge events during the next 18 months. It can be calculated as the number of members in your clan multiplied by the number of lodge events during the next 18 months. Divide this number by 3 and round down. This is the amount of necessary attendances for your clan for the lodge events. For example, if there were 6 lodge events during the next 18 months, a clan of 8 would have to have 16 attendances to lodge events. Not all of the events must have a clan member present and the attendances could be in any combination, from 3 clan members attending all 6 lodge events, to all 8 members coming to 2 events each. However, this does not mean that this is all an Elangomat has to do to become an Honor Elangomat. It is far from that.

Those Elangomats that meet this requirement and have done an exceptional job as an Elangomat can become an Honor Elangomat. So what is an exceptional job? This can range from going out of your way to make sure that all of your clan members have gained a thorough understanding of the Ordeal to making your discussion interesting and informative. This is a goal that any Elangomat can achieve, regardless of his clan. You should strive for it, and if you are found worthy, you will become one.



The Elangomat Discussion

The Elangomat discussions are an integral part of the Elangomat program. There are many purposes to these discussions, and one of them is to assist the Elangomat in becoming a true friend of the clan. The discussions help the Elangomat develop a rapport between the clan and himself through sharing experiences and concerns informally. The candidate is encouraged to follow his Elangomat's directions and advice, he should do so out of the friendship he has, not out of fear. These discussions help build up that friendship.

As stated before, everything is new to the candidates. Another purpose of the discussions it help them relax and rid them of their fears.

The last purpose of the discussions is to communicate information about the OA and the Ordeal. By the end of the weekend, the new Brothers should not only understand what happened and why, but should also have begun to plan some of their personal applications for our principles.

Candidates should be better prepared for the each part of Ordeal that follows each discussion session if they participate actively. They will be ready for the tests and experiences which await them. In addition, they should gain an understanding of the parts of the Ordeal. They should also begin to understand the structure, functions, and purposes of the Order. Though they are started on the short term, developing clan unity and fostering a sense of Brotherhood are continued as long term goals.

It is important that the Elangomat understand that the discussions are only one part of their participation in the candidate's induction.

Leading an effective discussion session means more than simply talking with (or at) the candidates. It is imperative that the Elangomat prepare for these discussions prior to the weekend. Though conducting these discussion may be difficult, they may also be the most rewarding for both the Elangomat and the clan.

Remember that each discussion is not a strict set of rules. These discussions are designed so that each Elangomat can develop a personal style of leadership. Still, however, the content of the discussion should be the same for each clan, so there are a few guidelines you should follow.

1. Know the General Goals of Discussion Sessions

Before each session, be sure that you review and understand the purposes of the discussions. This should be the basis for all of your discussions. You should make sure that your discussion helps to meet these goals, for if it does not, it cannot be successful.

2. Know the Goals of the Session

Each session, in addition to the goals of the discussion program, will have its own specific goals. It is important that whatever they are, they get across. Write out your goals for each session so that you can refer back to them as you continue your planning.

3. Know the Material for Each Session

Regardless of how well you lead a discussion, you cannot communicate information to the candidates if you do not know it yourself. There are some things that you cannot say directly because of symbolic progression, but you can point the candidate in the right direction so he can discover it himself. You should read over the Spirit of the Arrow booklets before the Ordeal. Try to convey what they say to your clan, but do not use the booklets directly.

4. Prepare the Questions

Review your goals and remember you are leading a discussion, not a lecture. You may have to clarify some answers, but the purpose of this is to let the clan share their knowledge. Remember that some questions you should ask are not required to be answered in the group or directly to you. Always prepare more questions than you think you will need, and be ready to not use them.

5. Lead the Discussions

If you are prepared, leading the discussions will not be terribly difficult. As a general guideline, each session should be from 15-20 minutes. The preparations could take up to an hour. You can structure your discussion based on the next section, but develop it to fit your personal style.



How should I conduct my discussions?

1. Before You Begin

Be sure to hold a discussion with the entire clan present. Find a location where there will be a minimal amount of interruptions. It is possible that the Ordeal Chairman, the Elangomat Sakima, or their witatschimoisins (check the back of the OA Handbook!) may attend your discussions. If this is the case, RELAX! It is not to make you feel nervous, because they will only do this if they would like to see how well the Elangomat Discussions work. Other Brothers may attend, but it is at your discretion, and you can ask them to leave if you want.

You may not be as comfortable as you would like (you will come closer if you are fully prepared!), but the candidates are probably uncomfortable also. Try to develop a sense of unity and Brotherhood among the clan members and things will get better. The best Elangomats anticipate and provide for the needs of their clan, so develop your discussion accordingly.

Once the candidates have taken the vow of silence, they may be temporarily released FOR PARTICIPATION IN THE DISCUSSION ONLY!

2. Establish a Friendly Rapport

As an Elangomat, you are the candidates' friend. Therefore, it is imperative that a friendly rapport be established. You must try to not appear "above" them, for when this happens, they no longer see you as a friend.

In order to establish a rapport, you should try to ease their tensions and fears. Ask them about their welfare in a sincere way, and if they need something that you can provide, get it! They will be hungry, very tired, hungry, possibly wet, hungry, anxious, and hungry. Do not let the candidates lie down, because, no matter how interesting you are, someone will fall asleep.

Another good idea for establishing a rapport would be to lay some guidelines. You may want to say something along the lines of "There are no wrong or dumb answers," or "Let us behave in a Scoutly manner, with no derogatory remarks. This is a safe haven." You will also want to be sure that everyone has a chance to express their feelings (encourage this), and also have the chance to stay silent. However, be careful that you do not ruin the atmosphere that the ceremonies team has worked to establish.

3. Outline Your Talk

Briefly share with the candidates an overview of the session. Let them hear some of your goals and what they can expect.

4. The Body of Your Discussion

This is the main part of your time together. You should be sharing factual knowledge, encouraging each candidate to sharing their feelings, challenging your clan according to Principle Three, and providing "food for thought" as their vow of silence turns their thoughts inward.

You should sedulously avoid all nifty nugae, polysyllabic profundity, pompous prolixity, psittaceous vacuity, and vaniloquent vapidity. In other words, Keep It Simple Stupid!

Give your clan an open and positive atmosphere in which they can share their feelings about what they are going through. When they discover that others frequently have the same reactions that they do, Brotherhood and friendship are built and strengthened. You may share your experiences, but they are helpful only if you keep them brief and relevant. Candidates may answer honestly or dishonestly, but never "wrong." Try to help your clan be honest with themselves, not for them to agree with each other or you.

It makes much sense, therefore, to ask questions that help the candidates discover their own attitudes. Some scouts who come here for the Ordeal may never have been challenged to live a lifestyle consistent with the Scout Oath and Law. It is even possible that they do not know what they mean! However, you must not interpret these principles for them. They will discover these in time, as long as you provide the proper atmosphere and encouragement.

As your discussion ends, it would be a good idea to look back on real life situations. Rhetorical questions about their daily life will help the candidates. An important concept is "A Scout is Loyal." The clan members should think about what loyalty means. However, it may be a better idea to ask them how they can show loyalty in their everyday life. Since the vow of silence is designed to turn thoughts inward, they will have time to think about these kinds of subjects. Hopefully, the knowledge gained this way will be put into practice, making it more valuable than factual knowledge.

5. Answering Questions

Always give your clan the opportunity to ask questions, but do not violated the principle of symbolic progression. Do not hesitate to say, "That's a good question! If you listen at the ceremony tonight, Kitchkinet (or Meteu, etc.) will answer it for you. Then we can talk about it some more before you leave." You may also put off a question until a later session, if you know you will cover the question then (but do not forget it). If someone asks you a question for which you have no clue what the answer is, or you are not completely sure, DO NOT BS!!! Be honest, and tell them that you do not know. Then find out the answer, if possible, and tell them.

6. Outline the Schedule

Inform the candidates of what will be happening in the near future. In the eyes of the candidates, the period from one discussion to the other is long enough. However, do not break the principle of symbolic progression.

7. Remind Them of What You Want to Accomplish

By the end of the session, make sure that the candidates have a clear understanding of what they have heard and what they should expect of themselves. Do not forget to re-institute the vow of silence when finished.

After the session, as soon as possible, review what you did ON PAPER. Compare this to what you wanted to do, and make notes for improvement for the future. During the development period, you can even refer back to these notes to what specific things were discussed.

Remember, it is the Elangomat HIMSELF who is responsible for the effective use of the Elangomat Discussions. Preparation, enthusiasm, commitment, and practice will be factors which determine the success of your discussions.



Questioning Techniques

When your clan members answer the questions given to them, they are not only responding to the question itself, but also the way in which the question is worded. Their response is also influenced by the location they are in, the previous question, who else is nearby, the tone of your voice, and a whole slew of variables. This section is designed to help you start to select and use the right questions for the right time. You are responsible, however, to communicate what you want to say to the members of your clan. Never assume that they are on your line of thinking. Though preparing and asking meaningful questions is difficult, the success of your discussions (and possibly the success of your clan's induction), is a result of your commitment to do this.


Since the nature of these sessions are semi-informal, you will want to find a location in which everyone, including yourself, can relax. Avoid distractions, like too much noise, or too much sun in their eyes. Make sure that you are able to make eye contact with everyone (no sunglasses!).

Their Perceptions

Both in your planning and before the discussion, take a few minutes to consider how the clan is feeling. Remember, the best Elangomats anticipate and supplement the needs of their clan before they develop into problems. As an example, their excitement during the first session on Friday will not be the same as their attitudes on Saturday afternoon.

Remember, how the candidates see you will influence their responses to your questions. On Friday night, you will be like a stranger to them, but by Sunday morning, they should see you as a friend. You will get better responses if you are open and warm than you will if you are authoritative and cold. The responses of the clan can be predicted if you modify your questions with the location and perceptions of your clan.

Listening Responses

As a discussion leader, your responsibilities are to initiate, control and guide, and complete the discussion. Ask questions that let the clan do most of the talking. By responding to the clan's ideas, you can encourage participation because you are showing interest.

Encouragement: "Yes," "I see," and "I understand" are all phrases that show your interest without too much reinforcement. You want to allow alternative points of view (if any) to be expressed, so avoid phrases that show total agreement.

Silence: Pause after you say someone's name to get their attention. Pause rhetorical questions and before changing subjects. Avoid long pauses, however, as they can cause boredom and show a lack of preparation.

Facial Expressions: A smile, a nod, or a quizzical look can positively influence participation.

Types of Questions

Open vs. Closed - Open questions make sure a response is more than just a few words. Closed questions require yes/no answers.

Open - What was most impressive about the pre-Ordeal?

Closed - Were you impressed with the pre-Ordeal?

Using too many closed questions does not allow candidates to express their opinions. You can follow closed questions up with "Why?" to draw out answers, but open questions form a better base for your discussions.

Leading Questions - These questions have answers implied in them. There is just a response, and no discussion is involved. These kinds of questions can put stress on individuals, and possibly even ruin the rapport you have established.

It would be a better idea to ask sincere questions, since it shows the clan that you only want to see how they think they did, not to make them nervous.

Leading - You didn't do to well on that job, did you?

Sincere - How do you think you did on that job?

Objective vs. Subjective - Objective questions are concerned with observable events, places or objects, rather than feelings or opinions. Subjective questions deal with feelings, thoughts, attitudes, and values.

Objective - What are the four tests of the Ordeal?

Subjective - Which of the four tests was hardest for you?

Clarification - This is basically a tool used to make ambiguous or vague answers more specific.

Open Clarification - What did you mean when you said ...?

Closed Clarification - Can you think of other situations like that?

Summary - This is used to clarify a response. It may also summarize information and ask for agreement or correction.

Summary - You said that Meteu was the guide of the Lodge, right?

Extension - A question that asks for more information.

Extension - Tell us more about what happened last night? What did you do when given the bow?

Echo - This is an exact restatement of the last answer. It shows the group that you are attentive and encourages the group to expand on the subject.

Answer - The Ordeal challenged me to improve my self-discipline.

Echo - It challenged you?

Choice - This is a tool for forcing decisions or commitment. Do not use it to put a candidate on the "hot spot," but, rather, to make him think.

Choice - You said that the Ordeal was easy and then you said it was hard. Which of these was more important to helping you learn about the principles of the Order.

*** - The knowledge that is given at the ceremonies, activities, and discussions is essential to the candidates' induction. However, this can be (and probably will be) re-learned after the Ordeal. Unlike the knowledge, the emotions and perceptions created at the Ordeal can not be re-created. Help your clan to identify these by asking, "How did you feel when ...?"

IMPORTANT - A response of "I don't know means:

1. He wasn't paying attention -- ask for elaboration.

2. He can't vocalize his feelings -- ask questions on a smaller scope.

3. He is embarrassed -- develop a stronger rapport and try again.




What do I cover during discussions?

There are some specific points that you must cover during the discussion sessions. Remember, you may use any technique you like, as long as the information gets across and the candidates benefit from it.

Phone Call (Introduce Yourself - Page 4)

1.Introduce yourself and explain who you are.
2.Congratulate him on his election.
3.Find out which Ordeal he will be attending (suggest Ordeal Weekend). If he is not attending any Ordeal, end the phone call. Tell the Elangomat Chairman
who will be attending what weekend and who will not be attending any Ordeal at all.
4.Explain what he needs and doesn't need.
5.Explain the necessity of punctuality for the night of the Ordeal.
6.Try to dispel any fears (but remember symbolic progression).
7.Try to answer any questions.
8.Find out about any restrictions (diet, physical state, etc.).
9.If necessary, speak to a parent (ignore symbolic progression) or give a parent the advisor's phone number.

Discussion #1 (Be at Registration - Page 5)

1.Introduce yourself and have all other members of your clan introduce themselves.
2.Explain the meaning of the term "Elangomat," share the name of your clan.
3.Explain the equipment that the members of your clan should and should not take with them. Explain how the rest of their equipment will be stored and cared
4.Help the members of your clan prepare their equipment. Ensure that they are properly dressed.
5.Explain the need to listen intently during the ceremony.
6.Move your clan's extra equipment to the pre-selected storage area and report to the Elangomat Sakima.

Discussion #2 (Morning of the Ordeal - Page 6)

1.Ensure that all are present, safe, and healthy.
2.Reason for election. (See OA Handbook - pages 7-9, 23)
3.Significance of Allowat Sakima first revealing the tests, then letting anyone withdraw.
4.Interrelationship of the bow string, bow, and arrow. (OA Handbook - pages 26, 54)
5.Testing the bow and shooting the arrow.
6.Questions the clan members may have.

Discussion #3 (Work Projects - Page 8)

1.The night alone. (OA Handbook - pages 23, 26, 54)
2.The vow of silence. (OA Handbook - pages 23, 27, 54)
3.The meaning of the Scout Oath and Law. (Boy Scout Handbook - pages 549-561)
4.The example of "Honor Camper" on his home unit. (OA Handbook - pages 7-9, 31-32, 37-38)
5.Questions the clan members possibly have.

Discussion #4 (The Evening of the Ordeal - Page 8)

1.The day of toil. (OA Handbook - pages 23, 27, 55)
2.The scant food. (OA Handbook - pages 24, 27, 55)
3.The vow of silence. (OA Handbook - pages 23, 27, 54)
4.Expectations of Ordeal membership and the ten month development period. (OA Handbook - pages 51-52, 56)
5.The need to listen intently during the ceremony.
6.Questions the clan members should have.

Discussion #5 (Dinner and the Cracker Barrel - Page 9)

1.The four fold Ordeal: as part of the Induction. (OA Handbook - pages 23, 24)
2.The significance of Brotherhood membership. (OA Handbook - page 49)
3.Questions the clan members had better have. (OA Handbook - pages 54-56)
4.Distribution of materials.

Brotherhood Information (The Development Period - Pages 9-10)

1.Obligation. (OA Handbook - pages 10-12)
2.Song. (OA Handbook - page 13)
3.Sign of Ordeal membership. (Right hand to pull arrow from quiver)
4.Handclasp. (Left hand, bottom two fingers intertwined)
5.Admonition and translation. (Never written down, but look closely at OA Handbook - page 54)
6.Difference between Ordeal and Brotherhood membership. (OA Handbook - page 56)
7.Wimachtendienk, Wingolauchsik, Witahemui, and their translations. (OA Handbook - page 11, Brotherhood, Cheerfulness, and Service)
8.Who Kitchkinet, Nutiket, Meteu, and Allowat Sakima are; where they stood in the ceremonies; what Meteu and Allowat Sakima each gave the candidates.
(OA Handbook - page 54)
9.Symbolism of bow, bow string, and arrow - separately and together in the pre-Ordeal. (OA Handbook - page 54)
10.Four tests of the Ordeal. (OA Handbook - pages 54-55)
11.Three preparations for the Obligation. (OA Handbook - page 55)
12.Legend of Uncas. (OA Handbook - page 55)




First and foremost, I would like to thank David Wallace, the 1990 Elangomat Sakima and eventual Lodge Chief. He originally created a handbook from which this one is heavily based on. Without such a wonderfully created handbook, I would not have any clue as to anything about Elangomat Discussions, not to mention much of the other information he compiled. I must say that many of the sections of this handbook were basically taken from the Dave Wallace's original, given some minor revisions, and put into the current handbook.

I would also like to thank my advisor, Mr. Gerry Mayers, who encouraged me to update the handbook. He gave me a slew of suggestions for the revision of this handbook. I also need to thank the Sanhican Lodge Chief, Sage Lichtenwalner, for allowing me to revise the handbook. I appreciate his ability to put up with my phone calls. The help of Mr. Tom McGlynn was also quite useful for the final touches of this handbook.

I hereby reserve the usage of the word "nifty" (page 28) in all Sanhican Lodge documents to myself. Many thanks go to Dave Wallace for finding the nifty words, other than "nifty nugae," in that sentence.

All references to page numbers in the OA or Boy Scout Handbook are for the most current edition.



Please direct all questions concerning this document to John Chorba.